Holland Tunnel Rehabilitation
Begun in 1920 and completed in 1927, the tunnel is named after Clifford Holland, Chief Engineer on the project. The tunnel design featured one of the earliest examples of a mechanically ventilated design. There are 84 fans contained in 21 vent stacks in four ventilation buildings, two on the New Jersey side and 2 on the New York side of the Hudson River. Each consisting of one Land and one River Building.
The 100 foot high buildings were significantly deteriorated over a 75 year period. Building facades including brickwork, limestone, windows, doors, concrete back-up, entire vent stacks, roof, intake louvers had to be rebuilt and/or replaced while the Buildings remained in operation.
Coordination between the rehabilitation of the vent buildings and their operation was of paramount importance in order to maintain proper ventilation inside the Holland Tunnel tubes.